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Tenth Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium ANTS-X
University of California, San Diego
July 9 – 13, 2012

Tenth Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium (ANTS-X)
July 9 – 13, 2012

Approximate common divisors via lattices

Henry Cohn and Nadia Heninger

Abstract: We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^{beta^2} to N^{beta^{(m+1)/m}}, under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^{n^{epsilon}} approximation algorithm with epsilon<2/3 for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented the algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests.
Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of multivariate polynomial reconstruction, and we develop a corresponding lattice-based algorithm for the latter problem. In particular, it specializes to a lattice-based list decoding algorithm for Parvaresh-Vardy and Guruswami-Rudra codes, which are multivariate extensions of Reed-Solomon codes. This yields a new proof of the list decoding radii for these codes.

Files available: paper (PDF)

© 2011-12 Kiran S. Kedlaya (with thanks to Pierrick Gaudry and Emmanuel Thomé)
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