# Unitary case of Parrot's Lemma

We begin by stating Parrot's Lemma.

Lemma [Y] Let a be an m x m matrix, c an n x m matrix and d an n x n matrix. There exists an m x n matrix z such that

is a contraction if and only if

Since we can not handle inequalities, we analyze the case where the unknown matrix z must be chosen to make the matrix above unitary.

Per our usual advice, when just starting a problem, we take most matrices to be invertible. Since only a and d are square, we assume that a and d are invertible.

If a and d are invertible, then the matrix above is unitary if and only if the following polynomials are zero.

Notice that all of these equations do not need to be typed in. The input for this run can be seen in ParrotStep1.m. When we run NCProcess1 on these equations, we obtain this spreadsheet.

Since the spreadsheet contains the equations

 ` ` and ` `
the equation
follows from the above spreadsheet. The above spreadsheet and the observation just made shows that, if a, c and d are invertible, then there exists a matrix z such that the matrix above is unitary if and only if

Moreover, if z exists, then

To show that under the above invertibility assumptions, there exists an m x n matrix z such that the matrix above is unitary if and only if

 ` ` and ` `
it is necessary to show that the equation
follows from the equations in the spreadsheet which do not involve either or .

One can either show this by hand or run NCProcess1 on the equations in the above spreadsheet which do not involve either or together with the equation

and see that this equation is redundant. which reduces to
.
In summary, if a, c and d are invertible, there exists a matrix z such that the matrix above is unitary if and only if
 . ` ` and ` `

Since we assumed that a and d were invertible, the above calculation has a ``back of the envelope'' flavor. Now that our ``back of the envelope'' calculation assuming invertibility was successful, it is easy to remove the invertibility assumptions. If we do not assume that a and d are invertible, NCProcess1 produces this spreadsheet.

One could use these equations to push through to the unitary case of Parrot's Lemma. However, since the theorem is well known, there is not much point in publishing this derivation.

Notice from the spreadsheet above that if d is invertible, then one can solve for z. So far, we only have a result for the case that both a and d are invertible. Let us consider the case when only d is invertible and see what happens. If we do not assume that or is invertible, but do assume that is invertible (and so, of course, assume that is invertible), then we obtain the this spreadsheet.

Notice the last expression in the spreadsheet.

This equation can be factored to
.
Therefore, the matrix a is onto. Since a is a square matrix, a is invertible. Thus, by using the spreadsheet and the special properties of matrices (rather than elements of an arbitrary abstract algebra) we have discovered that if d is invertible, then a is invertible. At this point in the session we would add the fact that a is invertible, run NCProcess1 and one would obtain the first spreadsheet.