__Upper Division Courses as Preparation for Graduate School__

**Ph.D. in Mathematics:**Students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in Mathematics should take Math 100ABC and Math 140ABC to ensure that they have the strongest possible foundation in Algebra and Analysis. It is best for students to complete at least one of these sequences by the end of their third year of undergraduate study, so that later they will have the opportunity to take other advanced undergraduate courses that require Analysis or Algebra as a prerequisite. Complex Analysis and Topology are also important for Ph.D. level work, and students are encouraged to take at least Math 120A and Math 190A. Finally, students are encouraged to acquire a broad background in Mathematics by taking undergraduate courses in a variety of different areas of both Pure and Applied Mathematics.

**Ph.D. in Statistics:**Because a strong background in Real Analysis is important for Ph.D. level work in Statistics, students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in Statistics are strongly encouraged to take Math 140ABC. Students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in Statistics should also take Math 180A, Math 181AB, and Math 185, and are encouraged to take additional upper-division courses in Probability and Statistics as well. It is particularly important for students to complete Math 180A and Math 181AB by the end of their third year of undergraduate study. Experience in computer programming is also very important for students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in Statistics.

**Masters in Statistics or Data Science:**Most of the advice given above for students planning to pursue a Ph.D. in Statistics also applies to students who plan to pursue a Masters degree in Statistics. However, students planning to pursue a Masters degree in Statistics could take Math 142AB instead of Math 140ABC. Students interested in pursuing a Masters degree in Data Science are also encouraged to take courses in Linear Algebra (Math 102 or Math 170A) and Optimization (Math 171AB or Math 173AB). Experience in computer programming is also very important for students planning to pursue a Masters degree in Statistics or Data Science.